Legume is a family of legumes, annual herbs.The pod contains 1 to 4 seeds with a diameter of 5 to 9.8mm and consists of two parts: embryo and seed coat.Oil and protein are mostly concentrated in the cotyledons of the embryo.The shapes of soybean seeds are oval, oblate and spherical.Soybean is the bulk of soybean in China, which has higher oil content and better quality.Soybean contains 16%-22% oil and about 40% protein, and the soybean used for oil extraction accounts for more than 1/4 of the total output in China.Soybean is not only an important oil, but also an important protein raw material.At present, many kinds of protein products can be made from soybean and its meal, such as full-fat soybean powder, defatted soybean powder, soybean protein concentrate, soybean protein isolate, soybean tissue and fibrin, etc., which are widely used in food industry.
Rapeseed is a cruciferous, annual herb.The mature seeds are spherical, with a diameter of 1.27 ~2.05mm.Seed coat is divided into light yellow, dark yellow, light
The color such as red, red brown and black purple, have shallow reticulate, the reticulate ratio of black seed is more obvious.The main rapeseed varieties in China belong to traditional high erucic acid and high erucinic acid (20% ~55%, 3% ~8%).Due to the international debate on the toxicity of rapeseed oil erucic acid, and the hydrolytic products (sulfides) of coleote make rapeseed oil have acrid smell and certain toxicity, and make it difficult to hydrogenate rapeseed oil, etc.,In the 1970s, double low rapeseed (erucic acid content in oil is less than 5%, and koisete content is less than 0.1%) has been cultivated at home and abroad, and has been widely promoted in Europe, America and the world (accounting for about half of the total rapeseed production in the world at present).However, due to the special structure and properties of erucic acid, rapeseed oil with high erucic acid has a wide range of applications in lubrication, waterrepellent and chemical intermediates, etc. Therefore, according to the needs of national economic development, many countries in the world, in addition to planting double-low rapeseed, also reserve a certain amount of rapeseed with high erucic acid for industrial use.
3. The peanuts
Peanuts are annual leguminous herbs.With the shell of the fruit for peanut, shelled for peanut kernel.Peanut kernel consists of seed coat (red coat) and embryo.The seed coat is the embryo, with two white fat cotyledons, rich in fat and protein.The kernel content of peanut is generally 68% ~72%.The oil content of peanut kernels varies with varieties, generally 40% ~51%.Peanut seed coat accounts for about 3% of kernel weight, and its oil content is up to about 14%.Peanut kernel is one of the most important plant oil and plant protein resources. Like soybean, it is the most widely studied oil used to produce edible protein in the world.Peanut kernel has many advantages beyond other oils, such as mild flavor, milky color, after simple processing can be eaten.At home and abroad, peanut kernels are widely used to make food, such as boiled peanut, fried peanut, fried peanut and peanut candy.
4. The boll
Cotton belongs to the Malvaceae family.Cotton seed is the seed of cotton, because of its high yield, and contains 14-25% oil, is also an important raw material for making oil.Cotton seeds account for about 65% of cotton by weight.The proportion of shelled kernel of cottonseed varies with different varieties. Generally, the shelled kernel accounts for 40% ~55% and the kernel 45% ~60%.The oil content of cotton kernel is 30%-40%, and the oil content of shell is only 0.3% ~1%.The cottonseed contains 31%~38% protein, and the cottonseed meal has not been fully utilized for many years due to the presence of gossypol.In recent years, researchers have done a lot of research on detoxification and comprehensive utilization of cottonseed, and made some progress.After removing gossypol by solvent leaching, some important products such as high quality cottonseed oil and cottonseed protein can be prepared.
5. Sunflower seeds
Sunflower, also known as sunflower and sunflower, belongs to Compositae;Annual herbs.Achene, long ovate or elliptic, gryish-brown or black, with a lignified shell and a kernel rich in oil and protein.According to their use, sunflower seeds are generally divided into edible type, oil type and intermediate type in China.The edible type contains shell rate of 40%-60%, kernel rate of 40%-60%, oil rate of 20%-30%, and is mostly used for direct consumption.Oil type oil content of 29%-30%, seed oil content of about 50%, suitable for oil production.The intermediate type is between the above two and has higher yield.The sunflower seed cake obtained by pressing oil contains 30%-36% protein, 8%-11% fat and 19%-22% sugar. Besides being used as feed, it can also be used to make monosodium glutamate and soy sauce.
Sesame belongs to flax family, annual herb.The seeds are flat and oval, and the colors are white, yellow, brownish red and black. Generally, the oil content of yellow and white sesame is the highest, followed by brownish red sesame and black sesame.Seeds by the kind of
The skin, embryo and endosperm are composed of three parts.Sesame oil has a special fragrance.Sesame seeds contain 45 to 55 percent oil and 17 to 27 percent protein.The seed coat accounts for 15 to 20% of the weight of the whole seed.It contains 2% ~ 3% oxalic acid, and the calcium oxalate produced by it gives sesame seeds a strong bitter taste.Therefore, it is ideal to eat sesame seeds directly after peeling.Sesame is widely used in the production of oil, sesame sugar, a variety of fillings, candy and special bread and many other foods.
7. Rice bran
Rice bran is a by-product of rice production, which generally contains 15% ~20% oil. Remove the husk of rice and it is brown rice.Brown rice consists of bran layer, embryo and endosperm.The bran layer accounts for about 7.5% of the total weight of brown rice, while the embryo accounts for 2.5%.Rice bran layer is composed of pericarp, seed coat, endosperm and aleurone layer.The oil in brown rice is mainly concentrated in the aleurone layer of the embryo and rice bran layer, especially in the embryo.Both the aleurone layer and the embryo can be crushed into the rice bran during rice milling. Therefore, the oil content of the rice bran depends on the grinding degree of the aleurone layer and the embryo. Generally, the weight of rice bran is 4%-6.5% of the weight of rice, and 6%-8% of the weight of brown rice.
Camellia oleifera, also known as camellia oleifera, tea family evergreen shrubs or small trees, gourd fruit hairy, 1 ~3 seeds, round back and flat abdomen, about 25mm long.The oil content of Camellia oleifera seed is 25% ~33%, and the oil content of Camellia oleifera kernel is 38% ~53%.Tea seed oil is one of the most important edible oils in South China and a popular product in the international market.The oil tea seed cake is poisonous and can not be used as feed, but it can be used as fertilizer and can kill insects and kill bacteria
9. Black cedar seed
Euphorbia belongs to Euphorbia family, tree, up to 15m.Leaves simple alternate, rhomboid to broadly rhomboid ovate, nearly equal in length and width, 3 -- 9mm, seeds subglobose.Seed outer coat has a layer of wax, white waxy, commonly known as Bai Bai, containing solid cypress fat
More than 30%, the extracted oil is called "skin oil" or "cedar wax", can be used to make wax candle, soap, can also be used as the production of palm acid and oleic acid raw materials.Black cedar seeds for the yellow and white kernel, containing 28% -29% oil, therefore, after removing the wax layer of the seeds squeezed oil is called "tar" or "catalpa oil", yellow liquid oil, can be used as the production of oleic acid and paint, lubricating oil, ink, cosmetics, wax paper and other raw materials.Tar contains toxins and is inedible. It can be used as a laxative in traditional Chinese medicine and as a decoction ointment.With the seed that takes wax layer to press oil, its oil says "wood oil", use at making soap and candle more.
The oil palm
Oil palm belongs to Palmiaceae, tree, up to more than 10m.Leaves aggregated cervix, pinnately lobed, 3~4.5m long fruit globose, 100 -- 300 fruits, nuts ovate or obovate, flesh oily, endocarp bony, apex with 3 holes.Oil palm, also called oil palm tung, is one of the important tropical oil crops.The outer layer of the oil palm fruit is pulp, and there is a hard palm kernel with kernel, which is called oil palm kernel.The oil content of the dry base of the oil palm pulp is 50% ~55%, and the oil is called palm oil. Like the oil palm kernel, its refined oil can be eaten.
(2) Fats and oils
Oil is a general term for triglycerides.Pure fat is a mixture of lipids and esters of glycerol.It is customary to call the liquid at normal temperature "oil", and the solid one is called "fat".
1. Soybean oil
Soybean oil is usually yellow or brownish-yellow in color. It is a kind of edible oil favored by people in Northeast and North China. Soybean oil has a special fishy smell, its smell and taste can be eliminated by high temperature steam deodorization, but it tends to recover, commonly known as "aftertaste".According to research, the fishy smell of beans is mainly due to the oxidation of fat contained in soybeans
It is caused by the action of enzymes with linolenic acid.Soybean oil is a semi - dry oil and its iodine value varies greatly due to different producing areas.For example, the iodine value of soybean oil produced in northeast China is higher, generally above 130, while the iodine value of soybean oil produced in south China is less than 130.Soybean oil, which contains more linoleic acid, is also widely used in industry.
2. Canola oil
Rapeseed oil, also known as rapeseed oil, contains a large amount of erucic acid.Its crude oil is dark brown, yellow after refining, and has a special smell. It is one of the main edible oils for people in southern China.In addition, it can also be used as a lubricating oil.For the rapeseed meal, now can be used by fermentation, neutralization and buried method to remove the poison contained in the meal, a large number of feed, changed the past can only be used as fertilizer situation.
Sunflower seed oil
Sunflower seed oil is an amber-colored, semi-drying oil with a special but not unpleasant odor that can be completely removed by steam deodorization.Sunflower seed oil is a kind of high-quality edible oil, light color, soft flavor, contains more unsaturated fatty acids, easy to be absorbed by the human body, including linoleic acid content up to 70%, can reduce the content of cholesterol in human serum.Therefore, it is now advocated that people should match sunflower oil more when eating animal oil with high saturated fatty acid content
4. Sesame oil
Sesame oil belongs to semi - drying oil, with special flavor, is the most popular flavoring oil in our country.Sesame oil has a soft and delicious flavor. It is a vegetable oil that can be eaten directly without refinement.Sessesame oil contains about 43% oleic acid and 43% linoleic acid, which is of high nutritional value.Sesame oil has a very low oxidation rate due to natural antioxidants.The sesame oil made by water substitution method has rich fragrance and more characteristic.
5. Cotton seed oil
Cottonseed oil is a semi - drying oil.It is dark brown, contains gossypol (yellow pigment), has an unpleasant odor and bitter taste, and is inedible.But after refining is generally orange or brown, gossypol has been removed, can be eaten.
6. Peanut oil
Peanut oil belongs to non - drying oil and has rich special fragrance.It is transparent in summer and becomes thick and opaque in winter. This is because the peanut oil contains some high polymer (C20Z) saturated fatty acids.Peanut oil is also widely used in the food industry.In recent years, Luzhou flower oil developed and produced by oil experts of Wuhan Institute of Food Technology can be eaten without any chemical refining, which realizes people's desire to return to nature.
7. Rice bran oil
Rice bran oil is semi - drying oil.Because it contains a variety of lipids such as bran wax in the oil, it has a special smell and taste, so it is appropriate to eat only after refining.In addition, the crude oil contains a large number of lipophylase, so it must be refined in time to ensure the quality of the product and storage stability.Rice bran oil is a nutrient-rich edible oil, which is rich in linoleic acid (29%-42%) which is essential for human body. Rice bran oil has low melting point, low viscosity, and contains natural antioxidants such as tocopherol and glutamate, which has good stability.
Corn germ oil
Corn embryo oil is a kind of edible oil with rich nutrition.It contains 34% ~ 62% linoleic acid and vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, has the function of lowering serum cholesterol, softening blood vessels, lowering blood pressure, preventing arteriosclerosis, is very ideal edible oil for hypertension patients and the elderly.
Linseed oil belongs to dry oil, its crude oil is generally green, but after decolorization is light yellow, edible.Linseed oil is also widely used in industry.